Second Grade Standards for the State of California

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Grade Two Standards in Language Arts


1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into
spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral
and silent reading.
     Decoding and Word Recognition
       1.1  Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.
      1.2   Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel = su/per;
             vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel = sup/per).
      1.3  Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.
      1.4  Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.).
      1.5  Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/ flies, wife/wives).
      1.6  Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression. Vocabulary and
             Concept Development
      1.7  Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.
      1.8  Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.
      1.9  Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e.g., over-, un-, - ing, -ly).
      1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension
strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing
information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through
Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular
school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of
grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, news-
papers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.
    Structural Features of Informational Materials
      2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.
    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
      2.2 State the purpose in reading (i.e., tell what information is sought).
      2.3 Use knowledge of the authorís purpose(s) to comprehend informational text.
      2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how).
      2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
      2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text
.     2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.
      2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

3.0. Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of childrenís literature. They distinguish between the
structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.
    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
      3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors.
      3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.
      3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.
      3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.


1.0 Writing Strategies
Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they
consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting,
drafting, revising, editing successive versions).
    Organization and Focus
      1.1 Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus.
      1.2 Create readable documents with legible handwriting.
      1.3 Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas).
    Evaluation and Revision
      1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing
demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies
outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
    Using the writing strategies of grade two outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
      2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences:
          a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
          b. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail.
      2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.


The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and
for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
    Sentence Structure
      1.1 Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.
      1.2 Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.
       1.3 Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.
      1.4 Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.
      1.5 Use quotation marks correctly.
      1.6 Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week,
            and titles and initials of people.
      1.7 Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why).
      1.8 Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r-controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.


1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the
listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.
      1.1 Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment).
      1.2 Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.
      1.3 Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.
      1.4 Give and follow three- and four-step oral directions.
    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
      1.5 Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.
      1.6 Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion,
           report to class).
      1.7 Recount experiences in a logical sequence.
      1.8 Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.
      1.9 Report on a topic with supportive facts and details.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized
around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English
and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the speaking strategies of grade two outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:
      2.1 Recount experiences or present stories:
          a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
          b. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting).
      2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.

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Grade Two Standards in Math

By the end of grade two, students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and
they use simple concepts of multiplication. They measure quantities with appropriate units. They classify shapes and
see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes. They collect and analyze data and
verify the answers.


1.0 Students understand the relationship between numbers, quantities, and place value in whole
      numbers up to 1,000:

       1.1 Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.
       1.2 Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).
       1.3 Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols <, =, >.
2.0 Students estimate, calculate, and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of
      two-and three-digit numbers:

       2.1 Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number
             sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.
       2.2 Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers up to three digits long.
       2.3 Use mental arithmetic to find the sum or difference of two two-digit numbers.
3.0 Students model and solve simple problems involving multiplication and division:
       3.1 Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples to do multiplication.
       3.2 Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups with remainders to do division.
       3.3 Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to ďtimes 10Ē) and commit them to memory.
4.0 Students understand that fractions and decimals may refer to parts of a set and
      parts of a whole:

       4.1 Recognize, name, and compare unit fractions from 1 /12 to 1 /2.
       4.2 Recognize fractions of a whole and parts of a group (e.g., one-fourth of a pie, two-thirds of 15 balls).
       4.3 Know that when all fractional parts are included, such as four-fourths, the result is equal to the whole and
             to one.
5.0 Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting amounts
      of money:

       5.1 Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills.
       5.2 Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.
6.0 Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve
      numbers that use the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands places:

       6.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).


1.0 Students model, represent, and interpret number relationships to create and solve
      problems involving addition and subtraction:

       1.1 Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.
       1.2 Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
       1.3 Solve addition and subtraction problems by using data from simple charts, picture graphs, and
             number sentences.


1.0 Students understand that measurement is accomplished by identifying a unit of measure,
      iterating (repeating) that unit, and comparing it to the item to be measured:

       1.1 Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.
       1.2 Use different units to measure the same object and predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller
             when a different unit is used.
       1.3 Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/or centimeter.
       1.4 Tell time to the nearest quarter hour and know relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a
             month, weeks in a year).
       1.5 Determine the duration of intervals of time in hours (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).
2.0 Students identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of
      common objects in space:

       2.1 Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle,sphere,
             pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.
       2.2 Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can
             be arranged to form a rectangle).


1.0 Students collect numerical data and record, organize, display, and interpret the data on
      bar graphs and other representations:

       1.1 Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.
       1.2 Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).
       1.3 Identify features of data sets (range and mode).
       1.4 Ask and answer simple questions related to data representations.
2.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of patterns and how patterns grow and describe
      them in general ways:

       2.1 Recognize, describe, and extend patterns and determine a next term in linear patterns (e.g., 4, 8, 12 .  .  .  ;
             the number of ears on one horse, two horses, three horses, four horses).
       2.2 Solve problems involving simple number patterns.


1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
       1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
       1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
2.0 Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:
      2.1 Defend the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.
      2.2 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
3.0 Students note connections between one problem and another.

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Grade Two Standards in Social Studies
People Who Make a Difference

Students in grade two explore the lives of actual people who make a difference in their everyday lives and learn the
stories of extraordinary people from history whose achievements have touched them, directly or indirectly. The study
of contemporary people who supply goods and services aids in understanding the complex interdepen-dence in our
free-market system.
2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened

     1. Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including artifacts, photographs,
         interviews, and documents.
     2. Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents, grandparents, and/or guardians.
     3. Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or storyboard).
2.2 Students demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of
      people, places, and environments.

     1. Locate on a simple letter-number grid system the specific locations and geographic features in their
         neighborhood or community (e.g., map of the classroom, the school).
    2. Label from memory a simple map of the North American continent, including the countries, oceans,
        Great Lakes, major rivers, and mountain ranges. Identify the essential map elements: title, legend, directional
        indicator, scale, and date.
     3. Locate on a map where their ancestors live(d), telling when the family moved to the local community and
         how and why they made the trip.
     4. Compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural environments in California.
2.3 Students explain governmental institutions and practices in the United States and
     other countries.

     1. Explain how the United States and other countries make laws, carry out laws, determine whether laws have
          been violated, and punish wrongdoers.
     2. Describe the ways in which groups and nations interact with one another to try to resolve problems in such
         areas as trade, cultural contacts, treaties, diplomacy, and military force.
2.4 Students understand basic economic concepts and their individual roles in the economy
      and demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills.

    1. Describe food production and consumption long ago and today, including the roles of farmers, processors,
         distributors, weather, and land and water resources.
    2. Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and sellers (produc-ers) of goods and services.
    3. Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption (what to produce and what to consume).
2.5 Students understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how
      heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in othersí lives (e.g.,
      from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington
      Carver, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).

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Grade Two Standards in Science


1. The motion of objects can be observed and measured. As a basis for understanding
    this concept:

     a. Students know the position of an object can be described by locating it in relation to another object or to
         the background.
     b. Students know an objectís motion can be described by recording the change in position of the object
         over time.
     c. Students know the way to change how something is moving is by giving it a push or a pull. The size of
         the change is related to the strength, or the amount of force, of the push or pull.
     d. Students know tools and machines are used to apply pushes and pulls (forces) to make things move.
     e. Students know objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up.
     f. Students know magnets can be used to make some objects move without being touched.
     g. Students know sound is made by vibrating objects and can be described by its pitch and volume.


2. Plants and animals have predictable life cycles. As a basis for understanding this concept:
     a. Students know that organisms reproduce offspring of their own kind and that the offspring resemble their
         parents and one another.
     b. Students know the sequential stages of life cycles are different for different animals, such as butterflies, frogs,
         and mice.
     c. Students know many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents. Some characteristics
         are caused or influenced by the environment.
     d. Students know there is variation among individuals of one kind within a population.
     e. Students know light, gravity, touch, or environmental stress can affect the germination, growth, and develop-
        ment of plants.
     f. Students know flowers and fruits are associated with reproduction in plants.

Earth Sciences

3. Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human
     activities. As a basis for understanding this concept:

     a. Students know how to compare the physical properties of different kinds of rocks and know that rock
         is composed of different combinations of minerals.
     b. Students know smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of larger rocks.
     c. Students know that soil is made partly from weathered rock and partly from organic materials and that soils
         differ in their color, texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants.
     d. Students know that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and that scientists
         learn about the past history of Earth by studying fossils.
     e. Students know rock, water, plants, and soil provide many resources, including food, fuel, and building materials,
         that humans use.


4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful
     investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content
     in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform
     investigations. Students will:

     a. Make predictions based on observed patterns and not random guessing.
     b. Measure length, weight, temperature, and liquid volume with appropriate tools and express those measurements
         in standard metric system units.
     c. Compare and sort common objects according to two or more physical attributes (e.g., color, shape, texture,
         size, weight).
     d. Write or draw descriptions of a sequence of steps, events, and observations.
     e. Construct bar graphs to record data, using appropriately labeled axes.
     f. Use magnifiers or microscopes to observe and draw descriptions of small objects or small features of objects.
     g. Follow oral instructions for a scientific investigation.

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